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【学习笔记】Oracle TDE关于wallet 使用管理笔记

时间:2016-11-23 18:01   来源:Oracle研究中心   作者:网络   点击:

天萃荷净 Oracle研究中心学习笔记:分享一篇关于Oracle TDE的研究笔记,通过案例步骤详细介绍关于wallet 使用管理笔记。

本站文章除注明转载外,均为本站原创: 转载自love wife & love life —Roger 的Oracle技术博客
本文链接地址: oracle TDE学习系列 (1) — wallet 使用管理

关于oracle wallet,通常称为oracle钱夹,说的通俗一点,oracle wallet是一个用口令加密的PKCS#12文件,PKCS#12是一个个人信息交换的语法标准,该公钥密码标准由RSA security 涉及和发布。

我们知道11g的表空间加密依赖于oracle wallet以及wallet中的密钥,对于wallet分为如下2种:

1. 手动打开的wallet (每次数据库启动以后,需要手动打开wallet)
2. 启动打开的wallet (每次数据库启动以后会启动打开)


如何设置数据库启动以后wallet启启动呢?很简单,通过owm去修改属性即可。
如果是DG环境,oracle推荐使自动的wallet(11g TDE支持dataguard)

创建wallet的方法分别有如下几种:

  --> 手动调用OWM 进行GUI图形界面进行操作
  --> 手工运行mkstore命令创建
  --> alter system set encryption key identified by "xxxxx";

当然我这里图方便直接调用OWM进行创建了,如果是用mkstore命令,那么如下:

  --> mkstore -wrl /home/ora11g/admin/roger/wallet -create
  --> 输入密码(此时的密码是主密钥)
  --> 确认密码

我们这里已经有一个wallet,所以我就直接打开即可,如下:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "roger007~!@";
ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "roger007~!@"
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28368: cannot auto-CREATE wallet
如果出现上面错误,那么可以说手工指定wallet路径,添加如下信息到sqlnet.ora中:
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,EZCONNECT)
ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION=(SOURCE=(METHOD=FILOracleoracleplus.netE)(METHOD_DATA=(DIRECTORY=/home/ora11g/admin/roger/wallet )))
当然,这里的method_data路径必须存在,否则会报错:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "roger007~!@";
ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "roger007~!@"
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28368: cannot auto-CREATE wallet

错误依旧,突然发现该目录是不存在的,手工mkdir创建以下,即可:
[ora11g@11gr2test admin]$ mkdir -p  /home/ora11g/admin/roger/wallet

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "roger007~!@";
System altered.

下面我们手工通过mkstore命令来看看(如下操作我是10204环境中进行):
[ora10g@oracleplus~]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -create

Enter password: ******

Enter password again: ******

==== 这里我输入的wallet密码是www.oracleplus.net ====

==== 将数据库用户roger用户认证信息加入到wallet进行管理 ====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ cat tnsnames.ora

# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /home/ora10g/product/10.2//network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

TEST_10G =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.2.110)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = roger)
    )
  )

EXTPROC_CONNECTION_DATA =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC0))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SID = PLSExtProc)
      (PRESENTATION = RO)
    )
  )
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -createCredential  TEST_10G roger "roger"

Enter wallet password: ******

Create credential oracle.security.client.connect_string1

==== 这里输入的wallet同样是我们前面的www.oracleplus.net ====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -createCredential  TEST_10G scott "tiger"

Enter wallet password:  

Create credential Secret Store error occured: oracle.security.pki.OracleSecretStoreException: Credential already exists

==== 报错了,提示存在?====

google了一下,原理是每个连接字符串只能对应一个数据库用户,那我们就收工在tnsnames.ora中再添加一个即可,如下:
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ cat tnsnames.ora

# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /home/ora10g/product/10.2//network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

TEST_10G =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.2.110)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = roger)
    )
  )

EXTPROC_CONNECTION_DATA =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC0))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SID = PLSExtProc)
      (PRESENTATION = RO)
    )
  )

TEST_SCOTT =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.2.110)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = roger)
    )
  )
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -createCredential  TEST_SCOTT scott "tiger"

Enter wallet password: ******

Create credential oracle.security.client.connect_string2

==== 创建成功 ====

==== 到这里可能有人会问,如何知道哪些用户认证加到wallet了呢?oracle当然也提供了命令,如下:====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -listCredential

Enter wallet password: ******  

List credential (index: connect_string username)
1: TEST_10G roger
2: TEST_SCOTT scott

我们可以发现,目前有2个数据库用户认证加入到wallet了,那么有什么用处呢?请看:

首先我们还得修改sqlnet.ora,添加如下内容:
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ cat sqlnet.ora

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE=TRUE
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,EZCONNECT)
WALLET_LOCATION=(SOURCE=(METHOD=FILE)(METHOD_DATA=(DIRECTORY=/home/ora10g/product/10.2/network/admin/wallet)))
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ sqlplus /@test_scott

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production ON Wed Oct 12 08:26:27 2011
Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle.  ALL Rights Reserved.

Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options

SQL> SHOW USER
USER IS "SCOTT"

==== 我们可以发现,实现无密码登陆 ====

到最后,我想大家会跟我一样还会有个疑问,那就是:如果scott用户更改密码了呢?

那还会有用吗?如果没用的话,是不是需要重建用户的认证呢?

答案是否,oracle还提供了MODIFY功能,如下:

SQL> SHOW USER
USER IS "SCOTT"

SQL> ALTER USER scott IDENTIFIED BY scott;

USER altered.

SQL> exit

Disconnected FROM Oracle DATABASE 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ sqlplus /@test_scott

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production ON Wed Oct 12 08:29:41 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle.  ALL Rights Reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied

Enter user-name:


==== 下面进行修改wallet中的scott用户密码认证:====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet/ -modifyCredential TEST_SCOTT scott "scott"

Enter wallet password:  

MODIFY credential
MODIFY 2

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ sqlplus /@test_scott

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production ON Wed Oct 12 08:31:51 2011
Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle.  ALL Rights Reserved.

Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options

==== 既然有了MODIFY,那是否有DELETE呢?当然有,如下:====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet/ -deleteCredential TEST_SCOTT

Enter wallet password: ******

DELETE credential
DELETE 2

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/wallet -listCredential

Enter wallet password: ****** 

List credential (INDEX: connect_string username)
1: TEST_10G roger

最后来看看如何设置新的密钥?首先这里我们要弄清楚2个概念:

wallet密码跟我们这里要修改的master key不是一个东西,wallet密码仅仅是你登陆owm或进行wallet时需要输入的密码,而master key是存在wallet中,用于加密解密数据库的加密列或加密表空间的。

另外还有一个表密钥,如果一个表有多个列需要进行加密,那么在该表上也只会生成一个表级密钥,当前段用户从该表中取回数据时,会首先取出表密钥然后再取出存在wallet中的master key进行对表密钥的解密,最后用解密后的表密钥去解密加密的列或表空间数据,最终返回明文数据给用户。

更改wallet key很简单,可以通过owm gui界面进行或如下命令:

orapki wallet change_pwd -wallet

这里主要测试下master key的更改。
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

WRL_TYPE             WRL_PARAMETER                                                STATUS
-------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ ---------
file                 /home/ora10g/product/10.2/network/admin/wallet               CLOSED

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption wallet OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";

System altered.

SQL> SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

WRL_TYPE             WRL_PARAMETER                                                STATUS
-------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ ---------
file                 /home/ora10g/product/10.2/network/admin/wallet               OPEN

SQL> conn roger/roger
Connected.

SQL> CREATE TABLE ht01 (id NUMBER ENCRYPT,name varchar2(10));
CREATE TABLE ht01 (id NUMBER ENCRYPT,name varchar2(10))
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28361: master KEY NOT yet SET


SQL> ALTER system SET encryption KEY IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";
System altered.

SQL> CREATE TABLE ht01 (id NUMBER ENCRYPT,name varchar2(10));
TABLE created.

SQL> INSERT INTO ht01 VALUES(1314,'killdb');
1 ROW created.

SQL> commit;
Commit complete.

SQL> SELECT * FROM DBA_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS;

OWNER        TABLE_NAME       COLUMN_NAME      ENCRYPTION_ALG                SAL INTEGRITY_AL
------------ ---------------- ---------------- ----------------------------- --- ------------
ROGER        HT01             ID               AES 192 bits KEY              YES SHA-1

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption KEY  IDENTIFIED BY "oraclemaster";
ALTER system SET encryption KEY  IDENTIFIED BY "oraclemaster"
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28353: failed TO OPEN wallet

SQL>  SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

WRL_TYPE             WRL_PARAMETER                                                STATUS
-------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ ---------
file                 /home/ora10g/product/10.2/network/admin/wallet               CLOSED

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption wallet OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";
System altered.

SQL> SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

WRL_TYPE             WRL_PARAMETER                                                STATUS
-------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ ---------
file                 /home/ora10g/product/10.2/network/admin/wallet               OPEN

SQL>  SELECT obj#, mkeyid FROM sys.enc$;

      OBJ# MKEYID
---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
     51809 AcNbIDu9IE+6vzrrVp/L4qcAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SQL> SELECT owner,object_name FROM dba_objects WHERE object_id=51809;

OWNER                          OBJECT_NAME
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------
ROGER                          HT01

SQL> SELECT obj#, mkeyid FROM sys.enc$;

      OBJ# MKEYID
---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
     51809 AcNbIDu9IE+6vzrrVp/L4qcAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SQL> SHOW USER
USER IS "ROGER"

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption KEY IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";

System altered.

SQL> SELECT a.owner, object_name, b.mkeyid
  2    FROM sys.dba_objects a, sys.enc$ b
  3   WHERE a.object_id = b.obj#;

OWNER     OBJECT_NAME     MKEYID
--------- --------------- -------------------------------------------------------
ROGER     HT01            AUkm6RyZ2084v/KP0PwFGUwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SQL>

++++ 我们可以看到,master KEY已经更改。++++
++++ 当然,当我们更改了master KEY以后,我们最好也同时更改下表级密钥。++++

SQL> SELECT * FROM ht01;

        ID NAME
---------- ----------
      1314 killdb

SQL> ALTER TABLE ht01  rekey;

TABLE altered.

SQL> SELECT * FROM ht01;

        ID NAME
---------- ----------
      1314 killdb

SQL> SELECT a.owner, object_name, b.mkeyid
  2    FROM sys.dba_objects a, sys.enc$ b
  3   WHERE a.object_id = b.obj#;

OWNER              OBJECT_NAME     MKEYID
------------------ --------------- -------------------------------------------------------
ROGER              HT01            AUkm6RyZ2084v/KP0PwFGUwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SQL> ALTER TABLE ht01  rekey;

TABLE altered.

SQL> SELECT a.owner, object_name, b.mkeyid
  2    FROM sys.dba_objects a, sys.enc$ b
  3   WHERE a.object_id = b.obj#;

OWNER              OBJECT_NAME     MKEYID
------------------ --------------- -------------------------------------------------------
ROGER              HT01            AUkm6RyZ2084v/KP0PwFGUwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA


+++++ 既然wallet如此重要,那如何备份wallet?++++++

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption wallet close IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";
ALTER system SET encryption wallet close IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net"
                                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28364: invalid wallet operation

SQL> ALTER system SET wallet close;

System altered.

SQL> ALTER system SET wallet close;

System altered.

SQL> !
[ora10g@oracleplus~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/net*/admin
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ ls -ltr

total 48
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  172 Dec 26  2003 shrept.lst
drwxr-x---  2 ora10g oinstall 4096 Sep 24 05:11 samples
drwx------  2 ora10g oinstall 4096 Oct 12 08:06 wallet
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  488 Oct 12 08:08 listener.ora
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  712 Oct 12 08:20 tnsnames.ora
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  181 Oct 12 08:25 sqlnet.ora

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mv wallet wallet_old
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ ls -ltr

total 48
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  172 Dec 26  2003 shrept.lst
drwxr-x---  2 ora10g oinstall 4096 Sep 24 05:11 samples
drwx------  2 ora10g oinstall 4096 Oct 12 08:06 wallet_old
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  488 Oct 12 08:08 listener.ora
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  712 Oct 12 08:20 tnsnames.ora
-rw-r--r--  1 ora10g oinstall  181 Oct 12 08:25 sqlnet.ora

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ exit
exit
SQL> SELECT * FROM roger.ht01;
SELECT * FROM roger.ht01
                    *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28365: wallet IS NOT OPEN


SQL> ALTER system SET encryption wallet OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";
ALTER system SET encryption wallet OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net"
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28367: wallet does NOT exist

SQL> !


[ora10g@oracleplus~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/net*/admin
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ mv wallet_old wallet
[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ exit
exit

SQL> ALTER system SET encryption wallet OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "www.oracleplus.net";

System altered.

SQL> SELECT * FROM roger.ht01;

        ID NAME
---------- ----------
      1314 killdb

==== 对于wallet的备份,我们可以直接拷贝即可如下,当然我这里直接mv测试:====

[ora10g@oracleplusadmin]$ cp -r wallet wallet_20111113

--------------------------------------ORACLE-DBA----------------------------------------

最权威、专业的Oracle案例资源汇总之【学习笔记】Oracle TDE关于wallet 使用管理笔记

本文由大师惜分飞原创分享,网址:http://www.oracleplus.net/arch/1314.html

Oracle研究中心

关键词:

Oracle TDE

Oracle TDE wallet使用笔记

ORA-28368