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案例:Oracle 12C数据文件头损坏 数据紧急恢复详细过程

时间:2016-06-17 14:15   来源:Oracle研究中心   作者:惜分飞   点击:

天萃荷净 Oracle 12C的第一次异常恢复—文件头坏块,接到第一个使用Oracle 12C作为生产库的恢复救援.有两个业务数据文件报文件头损坏,其他数据文件全部是9月份的一次备份,在当前的条件下,希望我们能够帮他们恢复出来业务文件中的数据

数据库版本信息

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER                                                                               CON_ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Production              0
PL/SQL Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0
CORE    12.1.0.1.0      Production                                                        0
TNS for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                            0
NLSRTL Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0

数据库故障
控制文件信息
1
控制文件中关于数据文件信息
2
数据文件头信息
3

1.alert日志报错

Reading datafile '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf' for corruption at rdba: 0x00000001 (file 4, block 1)
Reread (file 4, block 1) found same corrupt data (no logical check)
Hex dump of (file 5, block 1) in trace file /app/oracle/diag/rdbms/valuenet/valuenet/trace/valuenet_ora_12384.trc

Corrupt block relative dba: 0x00000001 (file 5, block 1)
Fractured block found during kcvxfh v8
Data in bad block:
 type: 0 format: 2 rdba: 0x00000001
 last change scn: 0x0000.00000000 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x05
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x00000001
 check value in block header: 0xa701
 computed block checksum: 0x0

Reading datafile '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200' for corruption at rdba: 0x00000001 (file 5, block 1)
Reread (file 5, block 1) found same corrupt data (no logical check)
Hex dump of (file 4, block 1) in trace file /app/oracle/diag/rdbms/valuenet/valuenet/trace/valuenet_ora_12384.trc

Corrupt block relative dba: 0x00000001 (file 4, block 1)
Fractured block found during kcvxfh v8
Data in bad block:
 type: 0 format: 2 rdba: 0x00000001
 last change scn: 0x0000.00000000 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x05
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x00000001
 check value in block header: 0xa701
 computed block checksum: 0x0

odu无法识别异常文件

[oracle@db odu]$ ./odu

Oracle Data Unloader trial version 4.1.3

Copyright (c) 2008,2009,2010,2011 XiongJun. All rights reserved.


loading default config.......

byte_order little
block_size  8192
db_timezone -7
Invalid db timezone:-7
client_timezone 8
Invalid client timezone:8
asmfile_extract_path /home/oracle/hongye/odu/data
data_path  /home/oracle/hongye/odu/data
lob_path  /home/oracle/hongye/odu/data
charset_name ZHS16GBK
ncharset_name AL16UTF16
output_form  dmp
error at line 10.
lob_storage infile
clob_byte_order big
trace_level 1
delimiter |
unload_deleted yes
file_header_offset 0
is_tru64 no
record_row_addr no
convert_clob_charset yes

load config file 'config.txt' successful
loading default asm disk file ......

can not open file 'asmdisk.txt', error message:No such file or directory.
loading default control file ......

unknown file format '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf'
unknown file format '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200'

 ts#   fn  rfn bsize   blocks bf offset filename
---- ---- ---- ----- -------- -- ------ --------------------------------------------
   1    1    1  8192   194560 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/system01.dbf
   6    2   10  8192    45840 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/example01.dbf
   1    3    3  8192   907520 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sysaux01.dbf
   4 1024   10  8192        0 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf
   5 1024    9  8192        0 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200
   4    6    6  8192   128320 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/users01.dbf
   7    7    7  8192   780288 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/undotbs03.dbf
  11    8    8  8192    25600 N       0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/indx01.dbf
load control file 'control.txt' successful
loading dictionary data......done

loading scanned data......done

dul无法识别异常文件

[oracle@db dul]$ ./dul

Data UnLoader: 10.2.0.5.32 - Internal Only - on Sun Nov  2 23:34:42 2014
with 64-bit io functions

Copyright (c) 1994 2014 Bernard van Duijnen All rights reserved.

 Strictly Oracle Internal Use Only


DUL: Warning: ulimit process stack size is only 33554432
Found db_id = 270587870
Found db_name = VALUENET

DUL: Warning: Cannot verify file number for /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf
DUL: Warning: First four bytes(76 162 0 0) of block 2 are not the start of a proper data block header
DUL: Warning: Block corruption or configuration error
DUL: Warning: Check db_block_size and/or osd_file_leader_size and/or file offset
DUL: Error: File Number can only be zero for Single Tablespace Datafiles

DUL: Warning: Cannot verify file number for /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200
DUL: Warning: First four bytes(76 162 0 0) of block 2 are not the start of a proper data block header
DUL: Warning: Block corruption or configuration error
DUL: Warning: Check db_block_size and/or osd_file_leader_size and/or file offset
DUL: Error: File Number can only be zero for Single Tablespace Datafiles
DUL> show datafiles;
ts# rf# start   blocks offs open  err file name
  0   1     0   194561    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/system01.dbf
  1   3     0   907521    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sysaux01.dbf
  4   6     0   128321    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/users01.dbf
  7   7     0   780289    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/undotbs03.dbf
 11   8     0    25601    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/indx01.dbf
  6  10     0    45841    0    1    0 /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/example01.dbf

该异常文件使用dul/odu均无法正常识别.证明文件头确实已经损坏

dbv 检测

[oracle@db trace]$ dbv file=/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200

DBVERIFY: Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Nov 2 14:08:34 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 194560
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 114596
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 26198
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 37787
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 1
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 15979
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Total Pages Encrypted        : 0
Highest block SCN            : 129603862 (0.129603862)

[oracle@db ~]$ dbv file=/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Nov 2 23:12:05 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 655360
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 294938
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 233404
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Lob)  : 38
Total Pages Failing   (Lob)  : 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 23252
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 103728
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Total Pages Encrypted        : 0
Highest block SCN            : 134665298 (0.134665298)

dbv检测结果无坏块,但是v$datafile_header和alert日志中报坏块,初步判断是由于该文件是bigfile,dbv未检测到文件头坏块,实际该该数据文件头损坏,其他block正常.所幸的是该库有9月份的rman备份(中间归档丢失),因此使用rman还原出来9月份的数据文件,然后使用dd拷贝两个 block(block 0和block 1)到异常文件.

[root@db freetouch]# dd if=/app1/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf bs=8192 count=2 of=/tmp/odu/sales.2
2+0 records in
2+0 records out
16384 bytes (16 kB) copied, 0.0176368 s, 929 kB/s
[root@db freetouch]# dd if=/tmp/odu/sales.2 of=/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf bs=8192 count=2 conv=notrunc 
2+0 records in
2+0 records out
16384 bytes (16 kB) copied, 6.4281e-05 s, 255 MB/s
[root@db freetouch]# dd if=/app1/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200 bs=8192 count=2 of=/tmp/odu/drp_200200.2
2+0 records in
2+0 records out
16384 bytes (16 kB) copied, 0.0185934 s, 881 kB/s
[root@db freetouch]# dd if=/tmp/odu/drp_200200.2 of=/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/drp_200200 bs=8192 count=2 conv=notrunc 
2+0 records in
2+0 records out
16384 bytes (16 kB) copied, 6.4419e-05 s, 254 MB/s

2.尝试恢复数据库

SQL> recover database;
ORA-00283: recovery session canceled due to errors
ORA-01610: recovery using the BACKUP CONTROLFILE option must be done


SQL> recover database using backup controlfile;
ORA-00283: recovery session canceled due to errors
ORA-19909: datafile 4 belongs to an orphan incarnation
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/sales.dbf'

使用bbed修改相关文件头,然后继续恢复
具体见:bbed解决ORA-01190类似方法处理

SQL> recover database using backup controlfile;
ORA-00279: change 129603904 generated at 11/02/2014 19:19:54 needed for thread
1
ORA-00289: suggestion :
/app/oracle/recovery_area/VALUENET/archivelog/2014_11_02/o1_mf_1_1_%u_.arc
ORA-00280: change 129603904 for thread 1 is in sequence #1


Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
cancel;
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log 'cancel;'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3


Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
cancel
Media recovery cancelled.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
alter database open resetlogs
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01092: ORACLE instance terminated. Disconnection forced
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [2662], [0], [129603911], [0],
[129603913], [29360256], [], [], [], [], [], []
Process ID: 19881
Session ID: 1 Serial number: 3

出现ORA-600[2662]错误,因为scn相差比较小,重启数据库机器,出现ORA-600[4194]错误

SQL> startup pfile='/tmp/pfile.txt' mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2505338880 bytes
Fixed Size                  2291472 bytes
Variable Size             973080816 bytes
Database Buffers         1526726656 bytes
Redo Buffers                3239936 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database open;
alter database open
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01113: file 1 needs media recovery
ORA-01110: data file 1: '/app/oracle/oradata/freetouch/system01.dbf'


SQL> recover database ;
ORA-00283: recovery session canceled due to errors
ORA-16433: The database or pluggable database must be opened in read/write
mode.

重建控制文件后继续恢复

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;    
alter database open resetlogs
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01092: ORACLE instance terminated. Disconnection forced
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [4194], [46], [19], [], [], [], [],
[], [], [], [], []
Process ID: 20351
Session ID: 1 Serial number: 3

设置undo_management=MANUAL然后继续恢复

[oracle@db tmp]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.1.0 Production on Sun Nov 2 19:29:45 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup pfile='/tmp/pfile.txt'
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2505338880 bytes
Fixed Size                  2291472 bytes
Variable Size             973080816 bytes
Database Buffers         1526726656 bytes
Redo Buffers                3239936 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

--------------------------------------ORACLE-DBA----------------------------------------

最权威、专业的Oracle案例资源汇总之案例:Oracle 12C数据文件头损坏 数据紧急恢复详细过程

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关键词:

Oracle 12C

数据库12C数据文件头损坏 数据紧急恢复详细过程